Matthew Block suggests that the following authors were influential in writing of this Paper and has prepared a parallel chart:
W. F. G. Swann, A.R.C.S., M.A., D.Sc., The Architecture of the Universe (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1934) Wikipedia page: Swann. See Frederick L. Beckner’s review (2001) of W.F.G. Swann’s Architecture of the Universe (1934) as “source material.”
Sir James Jeans, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S., The Universe Around Us (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1929) Wikipedia page: Jeans.
Ernest William Barnes, Scientific Theory and Religion: The World described by Science and its Spiritual interpretation (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1933) Wikipedia page: Barnes.
Sir James Jeans, M.A., D.Sc., Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S., Through Space and Time (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1934)
C. W. Sheppard, “The Evanescent Mesotron,” Scientific American (October 1940)
J. E. Turner, M.A., Ph.D., Personality and Reality: A Proof of the Real Existence of a Supreme Self in the Universe (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1926) Hathi Trust Digital Library copy.
The introduction to William C. Daywitt’s paper “Similarities Between the Dirac-Inspired Planck Vacuum Theory and the Urantia-Book Papers’ Concept of the Vacuum State” reads: “The Planck vacuum (PV) theory defines the vacuum state as a degenerate, negative-energy collection of Planck particles that interacts with free-space particles to generate the various equations of modern fundamental physics. And although the theory is not yet in the theoretical mainstream, the present author believes it to be the model that best represents the current approximation to the physical scheme of things. The success of the theory is due in part to its replacing three important secondary constants (G, ̄h, α) with two more-fundamental constants (e∗, m∗) in the various equations. In contrast to the PV model, the Urantia-Book (UB) Papers define a set of two fundamental energy states which will be referred to here as the UB vacuum (UBV). Similarities between these two descriptions of the vacuum state, the PV and the UBV, will be explored below.”
Section 1: Paradise Forces and Energies
p2: Tigran Aivazian’s videos with graphic representation of formulas for Ultimaton at Rest and Ultimaton Deindividuation at High Frequency Oscillations.
p3: Urantia etymology by Chris Halvorson: “specific: Urantia = (y)our heavenly place (i.e., in the cosmos)” “-tia = noun-forming suffix < -t- of L. past participle stem + -ia (cf., -tion and -ion)” “U.B.: “-tia” is indicative of impersonal, while “-ia” is more personal”
p5: Morontia etymology: In general (m) material substance (mor) is like (on) this thing (-tia).
By Chris Halvorson: “that which is (-tia) akin to (on) matter (mor)”
Note also: mor–Danish origin 1930’s, refering to humus formed under acidic conditions.
p5: divine energy is used five times: (42:1.5), (44:5.5), (51:1.3), (94:6.8), (145:3.14)
space-force is referred to in nine paragraphs: (0:11.18), (11:5.8), (32:1.1), (41:7.14), (42:1.5), (42:2.14,16,21), (42:8.2).
Section 2: Universal Nonspiritual Energy Systems (Physical Energies)
p6: Uversa etymology by Chris Halvorson: “the hub of the superuniverse that is the seventh expression of triune pattern (“U” is the 21st letter of the alphabet, and 21 equals 7 times 3. Hence, the headquarters worlds of the other superuniverses are Cversa, Fversa, Iversa, Lversa, Oversa, and Rversa. The “U” notation is also used in “Umajor the fifth” and “Uminor the third”.)” “versa = L., focus, hub (see endnote entitled “Versa”)”
masculine: metrical sequence of words (He wrote a verse.); also, versus (plaintiff versus defendant); feminine: poetical character (She wrote in verse.); also, vice versa (vice = in the place of another + versa = focus, hub)
“Versa is the nondirectional aspect of “a turning”, that is, the hub; while versus is the directional aspect, the rotation.”
p6,9,13: absoluta, segregata, and ultimata: See Nigel Nunn’s “Exploding Dark Islands” presentation, which covers the relationship between absoluta, segregata, ultimata and in the creation of ultimatons and how all of this relates to black holes.
p16: Havona etymology by Chris Halvorson: “the “new heaven” (Rev:21.1).” “-a = L. noun suffix (first declension, nominative) = U.B., general noun suffix, used to indicate the additional specific meanings of the coined name”
p22: Nebadon etymology by Chris Halvorson: “the first (a) nebular (neb-) upland (don) (The local universe level is the local upland relative to the lowlands where mortals begin their ascension careers in the Milky Way spiral nebula.).” “don < O.E., dun = n., down = upland”
p3,5,6,7,10,16: space potency appears in eighteen paragraphs: (4:1.9), (11:2.9), (11:5.4), (11:7.4), (11:8.5,8), (15:4.2), (42:2.3,5,6,7,10,16), (42:10.1), (56:9.7), (104:4.22), (105:7.9), (115:2.3).
p14,16,21: space-force is referred to in nine paragraphs: (0:11.18), (11:5.8), (32:1.1), (41:7.14), (42:1.5), (42:2.14,16,21), (42:8.2).
p19,20: monota appears in six paragraphs: (3:2.5), (42:2.19,20), (42:10.1), (104:4.22), (116:6.7).
Section 3: Classification of Matter
p8: From Wikipedia: History of X-ray Astronomy
“The history of X-ray astronomy begins in the 1920s, with interest in short wave communications for the U.S. Navy. This was soon followed by extensive study of the earth’s ionosphere. By 1927, interest in the detection of X-ray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation at high altitudes inspired researchers to launch Goddard’s rockets into the upper atmosphere to support theoretical studies and data gathering. The first successful rocket flight equipped with instrumentation able to detect solar ultraviolet radiation occurred in 1946. X-ray solar studies began in 1949. By 1973 a solar instrument package orbited on Skylab providing significant solar data.
“In 1965 the Goddard Space Flight Center program in X-ray astronomy was initiated with a series of balloon-borne experiments. In the 1970s this was followed by high altitude sounding rocket experiments, and that was followed by orbiting (satellite) observatories.
“The first rocket flight to successfully detect a cosmic source of X-ray emission was launched in 1962 by a group at American Science and Engineering (AS&E).”
Section 4: Energy and Matter Transmutations
p3-6: ultimaton See Felix Ehrenhaft: “Subsequently, Ehrenhaft showed that his results indicated fractions of the electronic charge of 1/2, 1/5, 1/10, and 1/100 existed. At the time, no one was able to disprove Ehrenhaft’s results or substantiate them.” See Wikipedia: Felix Erhenhaft.
p6: metric conversions: “. . . until at about 4,800 km it begins . . . the equivalent of one electron — in 16.4 cm³ . Such scarcity . . .”
p12: Annotation by Tigran Aivazian: “radium emanations, the archaic term for the chemical element radon (↑222↓86 Rn), which is the indirect decay product (via radium ↑226↓88 Ra) of Uranium-238.”
p14: Annotation by Tigran Aivazian: “860, This “magic number” is explained by Sir James Jeans in his book “The Universe Around Us” (1930, p.) as follows: the energy needed to separate two charges +e and –e apart at a distance r is e↑2/4πϵ↓0r; equating it to the energy of photon hν we have hν = hcλ = e↑2/4πϵ↓0r, whence we obtain λ/r = 4πϵ↓0hc/e↑2 ≈ 861.02.”
“The Number 860 in The Urantia Book“ by Dan Massey. (It starts on page 5.)
Section 5: Wave-energy Manifestations
p1: Annotation by Tigran Aivazian: “the visible rays embracing a single octave, number 46, The wavelength of the visible light ranges between 400 nm and 780 nm, therefore the base frequency used for calibrating the spectrum is 11 Hz: ν↓max(n) = 11 2↑n, where ν↓max is the top frequency (in Hz) of the nth octave.”
1955 version reads, “ten octaves up are the X rays, followed by the Y rays of radium.” SRT version reads, “ten octaves up are the X rays, followed by the gammarays of radium.” Explanation, “From external reference to physics, and multiple internal cross-references (see for example 42:5.7), gamma is clearly intended here. As to the origin of the Y in the 1955 text, it is likely that the lowercase Greek letter γ (gamma) was mistakenly transposed into Y at some point in the preparation of the original edition (probably at the time of the first typing from the original manuscript) either because of a faulty inference from the immediately preceding X, from an unfamiliarity with the Greek alphabet, or simply because there was no better way to represent the character on a standard typewriter. Whatever the difficulties involved in producing the Greek letter γ with a typewriter, it could easily be typeset, but the later decision to replace that letter with the word gamma is clear, reasonable, and consistent with the usage found elsewhere throughout the text.”
Orvonton etymology by Chris Halvorson: “the out-dwelling town (The superuniverse domain is the dwelling place for ascending mortals that is outside of the local universe domain, and the seventh Paradise satellite of the Infinite Spirit is the hometown for “the reunions of the struggles and triumphs of the ascendant career” [17:1.9].).” “ton < O.E., tun = town” “or- = O.E., out” “von < M.E., wone = dwelling, dwelling place, domain”
p4: ultimaton See Felix Ehrenhaft: “Subsequently, Ehrenhaft showed that his results indicated fractions of the electronic charge of 1/2, 1/5, 1/10, and 1/100 existed. At the time, no one was able to disprove Ehrenhaft’s results or substantiate them.” See Wikipedia: Felix Erhenhaft.
p5: Milky Way Nigel Nunn, a UB student since 1979, attended the Australian National University in the late 1990’s in order to better understand the UB’s scientific information, receiving a Bachelors degree in Mathematics and Astrophysics. He prepared a six page explanation with excellent graphics about how the description of Orvonton relates to current science and the “so-called Milky Way” galaxy.
Section 6: Ultimatons, Electrons, and Atoms
p4-6: ultimaton See Felix Ehrenhaft: “Subsequently, Ehrenhaft showed that his results indicated fractions of the electronic charge of 1/2, 1/5, 1/10, and 1/100 existed. At the time, no one was able to disprove Ehrenhaft’s results or substantiate them.” See Wikipedia: Felix Erhenhaft.
p7: Not only were the next two changes adopted by the SRT committee, these changes were also made to the text by Urantia Foundation, starting with the second printing in 1967. These changes do not have any type of typographical explanation. In a talk by Chris Halvorson, Ph.D. (physics), he presents the view that the original was both intended and revelatory. His explanation of this can be accessed on an audio file at his PerfectingHorizons website. The talk was given at his weekly study group; the relevant portion beginning at approximately 1:45:00 into the talk. Tigran Aivazian, M.S. (theoretical physics) is in general agreement with Chris’s explanation and has kept the original text (modified with metric conversions) in his British Study Edition.
1955 version reads, “an electron weighs a little less than 1/2,000th of the smallest atom.” SRT version reads, “an electron weighs a little more than 1/2,000th of the smallest atom.” Explanation, “Combined note for the two issues in this paragraph. The revised wording is consistent with the paragraph following the subject paragraph (42:6.8), where the author states that a proton is eighteen hundred times as heavy as an electron, and is also in general agreement with current scientific opinion which places the ratio at about 1:1836. The calculation of the relative masses of the electron and the hydrogen atom was undergoing a rapid evolution just prior to the writing of the Urantia Book, the ratio was estimated at 1:1700 in 1897, 1:2000 in 1904, and 1:1845 by 1922. This item and the related following item are the only changes recommended by the SRT committee that do not have a straightforward typographical explanation.”
1955 version reads, “The positive proton…weighs from two to three thousand times more.” SRT version reads, “The positive proton…weighs almost two thousand times more.” Explanation, “See immediately preceding note. Phraseology mathematically equivalent to the revised wording is necessary to be consistent with the revision at the beginning of the paragraph; both changes being required for the same internal and external reasons.”
Metric conversion: “Each atom is a trifle over 2.54 x 10↑(-8) cm in diameter, while an electron weighs a little more than 1/2,000th of the smallest atom, hydrogen.
p8: metric conversion: “If the mass of matter should be magnified until that of an electron equalled 3 g, then were size to be proportionately magnified, the volume of such an electron would become as large as that of the earth.”
Section 7: Atomic Matter
p3: metric conversion: “. . . at the rate of 16,000 km/s, while the negative . . .”
p7: Elements with atomic numbers greater than 100 did not start to be discovered until around 1955.
Element 100: Wikipedia: Fermium is a synthetic element with symbol Fm and atomic number 100. It is a member of the actinide series. It is the heaviest element that can be formed by neutron bombardment of lighter elements, and hence the last element that can be prepared in macroscopic quantities, although pure fermium metal has not yet been prepared. A total of 19 isotopes are known, with 257Fm being the longest-lived with a half-life of 100.5 days.
Element 101: Wikipedia: Mendelevium is a synthetic element with chemical symbol Md (formerly Mv) and atomic number 101. A metallic radioactive transuranic element in the actinide series, it is the first element that currently cannot be produced in macroscopic quantities through neutron bombardment of lighter elements. It is the third-to-last actinide and the ninth transuranic element. It can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles. A total of sixteen mendelevium isotopes are known, the most stable being 258Md with a half-life of 51 days; nevertheless, the shorter-lived 256Md (half-life 1.17 hours) is most commonly used in chemistry because it can be produced on a larger scale.
Section 8: Atomic Cohesion
See FROM THE YUKAWA PARTICLE TO THE QGCW (2008)
“ABSTRACT: The remarkable consequences of the Yukawa particle, theoretically proposed in 1935, are reviewed. The production, the decay and the intrinsic structure of the Yukawa particle opened new frontiers with laws and regularities which brought us to the discovery of subnuclear physics and now to the Quark- Gluon-Coloured-World (QGCW).
“1 INTRODUCTION: The Yukawa ‘particle’ theoretically proposed by Hideki Yukawa in 1935 , represents a gold mine which has its roots in the production, the decay and the intrinsic structure of this new particle. The gold mine is still being explored nowadays, and its present frontier is the Quark- Gluon-Coloured-World (QGCW) whose properties could open unprecedented horizons in understanding the Logic of Nature.
“2 PRODUCTION: Thanks to Yukawa, the search for cosmic-ray particles with masses in-between (this is the origin of ‘mesotron’, now meson) the light electron, me, and the heavy nucleon, mN, (proton or neutron), became a very hot topic, during the first third of the XXth Century. This intermediate mass value was deduced by Yukawa from the range of the nuclear forces.
“. . . On January 31, 1939, Nishina and collaborators submitted to Phys. Rev. (Letters) a paper where the discovery of a negative particle with mass (170 ± 9) electron masses was presented . In this paper the authors improved the mass measurement of their previous particle (with positive charge) and concluded that the result obtained, m = (180 ± 20) me, was in good agreement with the value of the negative particle. The masses of the negative and positive particles had not to be different.”
p3: From Wikipedia: Neutrino, History:
“The neutrino was postulated first by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930 to explain how beta decay could conserve energy, momentum, and angular momentum (spin). In contrast to Niels Bohr, who proposed a statistical version of the conservation laws to explain the observed continuous energy spectra in beta decay, Pauli hypothesized an undetected particle that he called a “neutron”, using the same -on ending employed for naming both the proton and the electron. He considered that the new particle was emitted from the nucleus together with the electron or beta particle in the process of beta decay.
“James Chadwick discovered a much more massive nuclear particle in 1932 and also named it a neutron, leaving two kinds of particles with the same name. Pauli earlier (in 1930) had used the term “neutron” for both the neutral particle that conserved energy in beta decay, and a presumed neutral particle in the nucleus, and initially did not consider these two neutral particles as distinct from each other. The word “neutrino” entered the scientific vocabulary through Enrico Fermi, who used it during a conference in Paris in July 1932 and at the Solvay Conference in October 1933, where Pauli also employed it. The name (the Italian equivalent of “little neutral one”) was jokingly coined by Edoardo Amaldi during a conversation with Fermi at the Institute of physics of via Panisperna in Rome, in order to distinguish this light neutral particle from Chadwick’s neutron. . . .
“Fermi’s paper, written in 1934, unified Pauli’s neutrino with Paul Dirac‘s positron and Werner Heisenberg‘s neutron–proton model and gave a solid theoretical basis for future experimental work. However, the journal Nature rejected Fermi’s paper, saying that the theory was “too remote from reality”. He submitted the paper to an Italian journal, which accepted it, but the general lack of interest in his theory at that early date caused him to switch to experimental physics.
“However, by 1934 there was experimental evidence against Bohr’s idea that energy conservation is invalid for beta decay. At the Solvay conference of that year, measurements of the energy spectra of beta particles (electrons) were reported, showing that there is a strict limit on the energy of electrons from each type of beta decay. Such a limit is not expected if the conservation of energy is invalid, in which case any amount of energy would be statistically available in at least a few decays. The natural explanation of the beta decay spectrum as first measured in 1934 was that only a limited (and conserved) amount of energy was available, and a new particle was sometimes taking a varying fraction of this limited energy, leaving the rest for the beta particle. Pauli made use of the occasion to publicly emphasize that the still-undetected “neutrino” must be an actual particle.
“In 1942, Wang Ganchang first proposed the use of beta capture to experimentally detect neutrinos. In the 20 July 1956 issue of Science, Clyde Cowan, Frederick Reines, F. B. Harrison, H. W. Kruse, and A. D. McGuire published confirmation that they had detected the neutrino, a result that was rewarded almost forty years later with the 1995 Nobel Prize.”
From Wikipedia: Meson, History
“From theoretical considerations, in 1934 Hideki Yukawa predicted the existence and the approximate mass of the “meson” as the carrier of the nuclear force that holds atomic nuclei together. If there were no nuclear force, all nuclei with two or more protons would fly apart because of the electromagnetic repulsion. Yukawa called his carrier particle the meson, from μέσος mesos, the Greek word for “intermediate,” because its predicted mass was between that of the electron and that of the proton, which has about 1,836 times the mass of the electron. Yukawa had originally named his particle the “mesotron”, but he was corrected by the physicist Werner Heisenberg (whose father was a professor of Greek at the University of Munich). Heisenberg pointed out that there is no “tr” in the Greek word “mesos”.
“The first candidate for Yukawa’s meson, now known in modern terminology as the muon, was discovered in 1936 by Carl David Anderson and others in the decay productsof cosmic ray interactions. The mu meson had about the right mass to be Yukawa’s carrier of the strong nuclear force, but over the course of the next decade, it became evident that it was not the right particle. It was eventually found that the “mu meson” did not participate in the strong nuclear interaction at all, but rather behaved like a heavy version of the electron, and was eventually classed as a lepton like the electron, rather than a meson. Physicists in making this choice decided that properties other than particle mass should control their classification.
“There were years of delays in the subatomic particle research during World War II in 1939–45, with most physicists working in applied projects for wartime necessities. When the war ended in August 1945, many physicists gradually returned to peacetime research. The first true meson to be discovered was what would later be called the “pi meson” (or pion). This discovery was made in 1947, by Cecil Powell, César Lattes, and Giuseppe Occhialini, who were investigating cosmic ray products at the University of Bristol in England, based on photographic films placed in the Andes mountains. Some mesons in these films had about the same mass as the already-known meson, yet seemed to decay into it, leading physicist Robert Marshak to hypothesize in 1947 that it was actually a new and different meson. Over the next few years, more experiments showed that the pion was indeed involved in strong interactions. Unlike other types of force, the pion (as a virtual particle) is also believed to be the primary force carrier for the nuclear force in atomic nuclei. Other mesons, such as the virtual rho mesons are involved in mediating this force as well, but to a lesser extent. Following the discovery of the pion, Yukawa was awarded the 1949 Nobel Prize in Physics for his predictions.
“In the past, the word meson was sometimes used to mean any force carrier, such as the “Z0 meson“, which is involved in mediating the weak interaction. However, this spurious usage has fallen out of favor, and mesons are now defined as particles composed of pairs of quarks and antiquarks.”
Annotation by Tigran Aivazian: “mesotron — nowadays called meson. In particular, the π↑+ -meson (pion) here referred to is now (2012 A.D.) considered to be 273 times as heavy as the electron.”
p4: Annotation by Tigran Aivazian: “The mechanism of π↑+ pion exchange described here was first suggested by Hideki Yukawa in 1935 and experimentally confirmed in 1947. Having finite mass for the virtual quantum of strong field ideally corresponded to the fact that this interaction has a short range, unlike the electromagnetic interaction explained by the massless virtual photons. However, in 1964 it was superseded by the quark model, according to which the proton-neutron force is a kind of “residual” force caused by the gluon exchange between the quark constituents of nucleons. In the quark model, pions are thought to consist of quark-antiquark pairs (e.g. π↑+ = ud [line over the “d”]), just like all other mesons and so their special role as the field quanta disappears.
p2: space-force is referred to in nine paragraphs: (0:11.18), (11:5.8), (32:1.1), (41:7.14), (42:1.5), (42:2.14,16,21), (42:8.2).
Section 9: Natural Philosophy
p1: physics (chemistry) is used six paragraphs and every time it is used in association with chemistry. See: (12:9.3), (58:2.3), (65:6.8), (66:5.24), (102:4.6), and (195:6.11). Chemistry also appears at: (41:2.6), (42:9.1), (49:5.19), (65:6.1), (74:6.3), and (81:2.9).
Section 10: Universal Nonspiritual Energy Systems (Material Mind Systems)
p4: subhuman See “Were the Alpheus twins subnormal?”
p1: monota appears in six paragraphs: (3:2.5), (42:2.19,20), (42:10.1), (104:4.22), (116:6.7).
space potency appears in eighteen paragraphs: (4:1.9), (11:2.9), (11:5.4), (11:7.4), (11:8.5,8), (15:4.2), (42:2.3,5,6,7,10,16), (42:10.1), (56:9.7), (104:4.22), (105:7.9), (115:2.3).
p7: beyond human appears eight times, followed six times by comprehension and once by understanding and imagination: (8:2.4), (12:7.12), (14:3.8) (17:1.6), (38:2.3), (42:10.7), (44:1.1), (48:2.20).
p4: subhuman appears in three other paragraphs: (9:5.3), (34:4.9), (79:5.2).
Section 11: Universe Mechanisms
Section 12: Pattern and Form — Mind Dominance
p9-12: See Topical Study page: Abortion and resurrection for the unborn.
p5: Seven Papers were sponsored by a Mighty Messenger: 28, 30, 52, 115, 116, 117, and 118. Seven Papers were presented by a Mighty Messenger: 32, 34, 40, 42, 54, 55, and 56. One Paper is said to be narrated by a Mighty Messenger: 22.