Paper 61: The Mammilian Era on Urantia/ /Life Carrier

Paper 60          Paper 62

Matthew Block suggests that the following authors were influential in writing of this Paper and has prepared a parallel chart:

Charles Schuchert, A Text-book of Geology, Part II: Historical Geology, Second, Revised Edition (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1924) Wikipedia pageHathi Trust Digital Library copy.

Thomas C. Chamberlin and Rollin D. Salisbury, A College Text-book of Geology (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1909) Wikipedia page: ChamberlinWikipedia page: SalisburyHathi Trust Digital Library Part I copyHathi Trust Digital Library Part II copy.

p0Urantia etymology by Chris Halvorson: “specific: Urantia = (y)our heavenly place (i.e., in the cosmos)” “-tia = noun-forming suffix < -t- of L. past participle stem + -ia (cf., -tion and -ion)” “U.B.: “-tia” is indicative of impersonal, while “-ia” is more personal”

Section 1: The New Continental Land Stage

Studies increasingly place lemurs in the direct line of human ancestry. See the UBtheNEWS Lemurs to Humans Research page.

p2: suddenly See also 61:6.1. From Wikipedia: Stephan Wolfram: “From 1992 to 2002, Stephen Wolfram worked on his controversial book A New Kind of Science, which presents an empirical study of very simple computational systems. Additionally, it argues that for fundamental reasons these types of systems, rather than traditional mathematics, are needed to model and understand complexity in nature. Wolfram’s conclusion is that the universe is digital in its nature, and runs on fundamental laws which can be described as simple programs. He predicts that a realization of this within the scientific communities will have a major and revolutionary influence on physics, chemistry and biology and the majority of the scientific areas in general, which is the reason for the book’s title.”

See “Is There Design in Nature,” Section 7 of Neal Kendall’s Scientific Symposium presentation at Urantia Foundation in 2016.

p9metric conversions: “A large ostrichlike land bird developed to a height of 10 m and laid an egg 22 x 33 cm.”

p13metric conversions: “Today this same stone is elevated to a height of 3 km in the Alps, 4.8 km in the Himalayas, and 6 km in Tibet.”


61:2.10 First true lemur.

62:1 The Early Lemur Types.

Section 2: The Recent Flood Stage

p11Excellent article relating “missing link” issues with evolution/creationist controversies, provided within the context of whale origins. Quick summary article on various animals that show land to water evolution characteristics similar to the pattern associated with whales. University of Michigan article on whale evolution and fossil excavation with useful images.


61:1.2,4 Lemur origins. 62:1 The Early Lemur Types.

p11whales (49:2.17), (65:2.12) provide the other two references to whales, as a species. difficult whales of selfishness (130:1.2) ref: story of Jonah.

Section 3: The Modern Mountain Stage

A longstanding controversy has existed over when the Sierra Mountains were formed. Two schools of thought developed, referred to as the Old Sierras and the New Sierras theories. The Old Sierras theory holds that the Sierra Mountains formed about 50 million years ago; the New Sierras theory asserts that they are only about 5 million years old. Though the controversy is not entirely laid to rest by research published in 2006, this new approach to dating the mountains employs a technology that is much more specific than previous methodologies and has been widely accepted as reliable when used in other applications. The results are harmonious with the Old Sierras theory and what was asserted by The Urantia Book in 1955. See UBtheNEWS Sierra Mountains Report.

p3metric conversion: “The great 6 km vertical fault in the California region dates from this time.”

p4,5: From Wikipedia page: EntelodontsEntelodonts — sometimes facetiously termed hell pigs or terminator pigs — are an extinct family of pig-like omnivores of the forests and plains of North America, Europe, and Asia from the middle Eocene to early Miocene epochs (37.2—16.3 million years ago), existing for about 21 million years.

p5metric conversion: “. . . but the giant pigs, more than 1.8 m tall, became extinct.”

p13Weasels, martins, otters, and raccoons…: A single mistaken keystroke could have produced martins from an intended martens. It is also possible, however, that the original form was the author’s choice, being a correct, though less common, variant. (We cannot assert that the author would not use an unusual variant, because coons was used for raccoons only two pages previously. (61:2.7 in the text.) However, even if originally correct, this usage of “martin” is no longer current so the modernization of the spelling is reasonable.


Section 4: The Recent Continental-Elevation Stage


Section 5: The Early Ice Age

p1metric conversion: “. . . in North America vast areas rising up to 9 km and more.”

p2metric conversion: “. . . and it continued to fall until it had attained a depth of 6 km.”


Section 6: Primitive Man in the Ice Age

p2See Topical Study page: Abortion and resurrection for the unborn.


p3aborigines/aboriginal are used thirteen times, including the one time it is preceded by “so-called” in reference to the secondary Sangik mixture found in southern Indian at 79:2.2. The other references, involving the original Andonic stock are at: (61:6.3), (61:7.4), (63:4.3), (63:5.4), (64:1.0), (64:7.18), (76:2.4), (78: 1.5), (79:2.2), (81:4.4,9), (85:1.5).

Section 7: The Continuing Ice Age

p2metric conversion: “. . . displacing the Mississippi River 80 km to the west . . .”

p4aborigines/aboriginal are used thirteen times, including the one time it is preceded by “so-called” in reference to the secondary sangik mixture  found in southern Indian at 79:2.2. The other references, involving the original Andonic stock are at: (61:6.3), (61:7.4), (63:4.3), (63:5.4), (64:1.0), (64:7.18), (76:2.4), (78: 1.5), (79:2.2), (81:4.4,9), (85:1.5).

p13See 2012 Penn State University report on polar bears that provides support.

p18…corresponding to the beginning of the Holocene or postglacial period.: All other geologic periods are italicized; including ‘Pleistocene’ and ‘Cenozoic’ on this same page.


Paper 60          Paper 62


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