Paper 179: The Last Supper/ /Midwayer Commission

Paper 178          Paper 180

Matthew Block suggests that the following authors were influential in writing of this Paper and has prepared a parallel chart:

David Smith, M.A., D.D., Our Lord’s Earthly Life (New York: George H. Doran Company, 1925)

Rev. Alfred Edersheim, M.A.Oxon, D.D., Ph.D., The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (Volume Two) (New York: Longman, Green, & Co., Eighth Edition, Revised, 1899) Hathi Trust Digital Library copy, V.1Hathi Trust Digital Library copy, V.2.Wikipedia page: Edersheim.

Wm. Arnold Stevens and Ernest Dewitt Burton, A Harmony of the Gospels for Historical Study: An Analytical Synopsis of the Four Gospels (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1904, 1932) copy.

Walter Russell Bowie, The Master: A Life of Jesus Christ (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1928) Wikipedia page: Bowie.

J. Middleton Murry, Jesus—Man of Genius (New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1926) Wikipedia page: Murry.

Charles Fiske and Burton Scott Easton, The Real Jesus: What He Taught: What He Did: Who He Was (New York and London, Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1929) FiskeEpiscopal Church: Easton.

David Smith, M.A., D.D., The Days of His Flesh: The Earthly Life of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, Eighth Edition, Revised (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1910)

For Biblical cross-references for all Sections: click here.


p4Foundation Map: April 6, 30 A.D.

Section 1: The Desire for Preference


Section 2: Beginning the Supper

p3Caligastia etymology: The one whose (capital “C,” specific) darkness (calig-) entirely (as) turns him into a non-person (-tia, normally used for impersonal names, instead of –ia, which would normally be used for a personal name). From Latin caliginosus “misty,” from caliginem (nom. caligo) “mistiness, darkness, fog, gloom.”Caligula was a Roman Emperor who succeeded Tiberius and whose uncontrolled passions resulted in manifest insanity; noted for his cruelty and tyranny; was assassinated.
By Chris Halvorson: “the one who is (-tia) entirely (as) darkenss (calig-) and no longer personal.”


Section 3: Washing the Apostles’ Feet


Section 4: Last Words to the Betrayer


Section 5: Establishing the Remembrance Supper

p9Original printing reads, “he said to the twelve: “And as often as you do this.” SRT version reads, “he said to the eleven: “And as often as you do this.” Explanation, “There were only eleven apostles still present for the establishment of the remembrance supper because Judas had left earlier; so the twelve of the 1955 text was incorrect. This had been revised to apostles in subsequent printings to make this sentence consistent with the rest of the narrative. However, if the manuscript had read apostles it could not have become twelve in the course of text preparation, so a different solution was required. Eleven has been adopted as the resolution of this problem based on the proposition that the manuscript contained numerals at this point–as hand written documents commonly do–thus, 11. At some point prior to formatting for printing, the last digit was changed to 2 either by accident or through the common typographical error of seeing what you expect to see rather than what is on the page. When the number was formatted for printing, the 12 which was so similar to 11 became twelve which is completely dissimilar to eleven. [Note that there are several other examples of errors in the 1955 text that apparently had a similar origin: 37:8.3, 41:4.4, and 43:1.6.]”

p10See 2017 article on Oriental Institute research: “In the past 50 years or so, though, scholarly interest has only grown in ancient Middle Eastern political documents and their relationship to the Bible. “There’s a huge body of Near Eastern law that the authors of the Torah drew on,” Cross said. “It helps us understand the world the Bible came out of. The biblical legal codes have their own spin, but they’re based on what was around them.””


p10Psalms (78:7.3), (95:2.10), (95:4.5), (125:0.2), (162:4.4), (179:5.10), (180:0.1).

Paper 178          Paper 180


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